When you look at the an excellent multicenter, double-blind, placebo-managed demonstration, 672 healthy guys (imply age of 61
8 many years) had been randomized so you’re able to daily calcium supplementation (step one,2 hundred mg) getting four years. Whenever you are no increase in the risk to own prostate disease might have been advertised through the a good 10.step three-year realize-upwards, calcium supplements resulted in a significant exposure lack of the period comprising out-of 2 years after cures visited 2 years just after treatment concluded (150). In a review of the newest books typed during 2009, the united states Agencies having Medical care Search and High quality indicated that maybe not all of the epidemiological degree located a link between calcium supplements intake and you may prostate cancer (151). This new comment reported that 6 off 11 observational studies failed to find statistically extreme confident associations ranging from prostate malignant tumors and calcium supplements consumption. But really, during the four degree, daily consumption from 921 so you’re able to 2,100000 mg of calcium supplements was basically found to be of this an enhanced threat of developing prostate cancers when comparing to consumption ranging regarding 455 to a single,000 milligrams/go out (151). Inconsistencies certainly knowledge highly recommend cutting-edge relationships within risk facts to have prostate cancer tumors, also reflect the difficulties regarding determining the effect of calcium intake in the totally free-traditions some one. Such, that individuals with high whole milk and you may/otherwise calcium supplements consumption was basically found to be likely to become engaged in match life-style or maybe more going to look for medical help can decrease the latest mathematical need for a link which have prostate cancers chance (152).
Perform calcium supplements improve the exposure to own cardiovascular illnesses?
Numerous observational studies and you may randomized controlled trials have increased concerns out-of the possibility side effects off calcium on the aerobic chance. The research of information throughout the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Foundation and you will Protection (OSTPRE) potential analysis found that users from calcium supplements around ten,555 Finnish ladies (age 52-62 decades) got good 14% greater risk of developing coronary artery problem compared to the low-supplement profiles through the a suggest pursue-upwards out-of six.75 ages (153). The target study of 23,980 participants (35-64 years of age) of your own Heidelberg cohort of one’s European Prospective Studies into Cancer and you will Nourishment cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg) noticed one to extra calcium supplements intake are undoubtedly of risk from myocardial infarction (coronary attack) however into the chance of coronary attack or heart disease (CVD)-related mortality immediately following a hateful pursue-upwards away from eleven years https://www.datingranking.net/fr/rencontres-biracial/ (154). Yet, the effective use of calcium supplements (?400 mg/day compared to. 0 mg/day) was in the an increased danger of CVD-related mortality inside 219,059 men, but not in 169,170 people, included in the Federal Institute off Fitness (NIH)-AARP Dieting and Fitness study and used for a mean months out of twelve years. CVD mortality from inside the people was also found to be somewhat higher that have complete (diet as well as extra) calcium intakes of 1,five hundred milligrams/time and you will a lot more than (155).
Up until the matchmaking ranging from calcium supplements and you can prostate disease are clarified, it is reasonable for males for eating a maximum of 1,000 to at least one,200 mg/day of calcium supplements (diet and medicine combined), that’s demanded by the Food and Nourishment Board of your Institute out of Medication (get a hold of RDA) (9)
In addition, the secondary analyses of two randomized placebo-controlled trials initially designed to assess the effect of calcium on bone health outcomes also suggested an increased risk of CVD in participants daily supplemented with 1,000 mg of calcium for five to seven years (156, 157). In the Auckland Calcium Study of 1,471 healthy postmenopausal women (ages ?55 years), calcium supplementation resulted in increased risks of myocardial infarction and of a composite cardiovascular endpoint, including myocardial infarction, stroke, or sudden death (156). The analysis of data from 36,282 healthy postmenopausal women randomized to receive a combination of calcium (1,000 mg/day) and vitamin D (400 IU/day) or a placebo in the Women’s Health Initiative/Calcium-Vitamin D supplementation study (WHI/CaD study) initially reported no adverse effect on any cardiovascular endpoints with calcium (and vitamin D) compared to placebo (158). A re-analysis was performed with data from 16,718 women who did not take personal calcium supplements (outside protocol) during the five-year study (157). Although criticized on the approach taken (134, 159), the investigators estimated that women supplemented with calcium and vitamin D had a 16% increased risk of clinical myocardial infarction or stroke and a 21% increased risk of myocardial infarction compared to those who received a placebo (157). However, in another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial – the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome (CAIFOS) study – in elderly women (median age, 75.1 years), the supplementation of 1,200 mg/day of calcium for five years was not found to increase the risk of vascular disease or related mortality (160). The WHI/CaD data re-analysis also failed to show an increased risk of mortality due to myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease with calcium therapy (156). Also, after an additional follow-up of 4.5 years at the end of the treatment period in the CAIFOS trial, the investigators reported fewer cases of heart failure-related deaths with supplemental calcium compared to placebo (160). In another randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium and/or vitamin D3 (RECORD trial), the evaluation of the effect of 1,000 mg/day of calcium (alone or with 800 IU/day of vitamin D) reported no significant increase in the rate of mortality due to vascular disease in 5,292 participants ages 70 years and older (161). A recent cross-sectional analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) evaluated the association between calcium intakes and cardiovascular mortality in 18,714 adults with no history of heart disease. No evidence of an association was observed between dietary calcium intake, supplemental calcium intake, or total calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality in either men or women (162).